viernes, 10 de agosto de 2007

Devoción Servita Bahía de Cádiz

LA DEVOCIÓN SERVITA EN LA BAHÍA DE CÁDIZ (*)

(*) Publicado en el ejemplar del año 2007 de la revista de la Tertulia La Familia Nazarena de Murcia

Francisco Espinosa de los Monteros Sánchez

La provincia de Cádiz es la más meridional de todas las provincias andaluzas y por extensión peninsulares. Dentro de este ámbito geográfico queda enmarcada la Bahía de Cádiz, espacio natural protegido donde se combina, por un lado, un variado ecosistema que alberga espacios de marismas, pinares, playas y salinas y, por otro lado, una serie de núcleos urbanos de gran población constituido por Cádiz, San Fernando, Puerto Real, Chiclana y El Puerto de Santa María. En todos ellos, la devoción a Servita caló con bastante fuerza hasta el punto de que en todas estas localidades la devoción a la virgen de los Dolores permanece vigente en la actualidad ya sea bajo la forma de VOT –caso de Cádiz y San Fernando- o de hermandades penitenciales inspiradas o continuadoras del culto a la virgen de los Dolores.

CADIZ

La Orden Seglar de los Siervos de María Santísima de los Dolores toma un especial impulso en España en el siglo XVIII. Cádiz, una de las ciudades de mayor crecimiento en el siglo XVIII merced a la cabecera del comercio de Indias, no iba a ser una excepción. Así, la orden se establece en la ciudad en 1727 bajo el impulso del obispo Lorenzo Armengual de la Mota. Este obispo de origen malagueño funda y manda construir la parroquia de San Lorenzo mártir donde queda establecida la orden. A partir de aquí la orden se expande con fuerza por la ciudad, construyendo en pocos años capilla propia anexa al templo de San Lorenzo.

La primitiva titular de la VOT de Cádiz es una imagen de tamaño académico atribuible al escultor dieciochesco José Montes de Oca quien la ejecutaría alrededor de 1730. La imagen se conserva en una hornacina acristalada en el exterior del templo. Debido al deseo de procesionar de la fraternidad, poco después deciden de realizar una dolorosa de tamaño natural que es la que perdura en la actualidad. Se trata de una dolorosa de candelero para vestir realizada en madera de tilo y con las manos entrelazadas que sería ejecutada alrededor de 1750 por algún imaginero genovés. Se trata sin dudarlo de una de las representaciones marianas más afortunadas de la provincia. Recientemente viene siendo atribuida al imaginero genovés residente en Cádiz Francesco Galleano (1713-1753) aunque pensamos que la imagen debió venir directamente desde Génova y que se podría adjudicar más bien a su hermano Pietro Galleano o a algún seguidor de Anton Maria Maragliano.

Desde el siglo XVIII hasta hoy la VOT ha perdurado con los lógicos altibajos. En la actualidad la VOT gaditana procesiona la tarde del Viernes Santo siendo una de las dolorosas que se espera sean coronadas canónicamente en breves fechas.

En el año 1759 y, por este orden, se fundan las VOT Servitas de Puerto Real, San Fernando y Chiclana de la Frontera, todas ellas inspiradas en la fraternidad gaditana (probablemente en torno a estas fechas se funda también la VOT Servita de Tarifa). Sin embargo ya en 1750 la VOT de Cádiz había servido de inspiración para la fundación de un movimiento similar en Buenos Aires aunque bajo la forma de Hermandad de María Santísima de los Dolores. A tanto llega la identificación con el movimiento gaditano que en 1757 el tesorero Jerónimo Matorras dona a la hermandad una imagen de la virgen la cual había sido realizada en Cádiz y enviada por Juan Sánchez de la Vega. Aunque la imagen que actualmente se conserva parece ser una copia moderna –la antigua pudo perecer en un incendio- el análisis de fotografías antiguas nos la relaciona directamente con obras genovesas y en particular con una dolorosa que se conserva en la iglesia de San Antonio de Cádiz y que al parecer fue antaño titular de la cofradía de Columna. No solo se limitaron los devotos a traer la imagen de la dolorosa sino que además se reciben desde Cádiz 100 escapularios y otras tantas estampas y novenas amén de medallas de metal y plata. En 1783 los cofrades bonaerenses deciden agregarse definitivamente a la VOT Servita, hecho que consiguen en 1791.

EL PUERTO DE SANTA MARÍA

Aunque no se conservan datos fidedignos, nuestras investigaciones nos parecen indicar que ya se daba culto en El Puerto de Santa María a una imagen de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores a principios del siglo XVIII y la VOT como tal ya estaría erigida alrededor de 1730. Hay testimonios de que en 1764 la VOT se encontraba ya agregada a la cofradía de Jesús Nazareno sita en el convento de San Agustín. Sin embargo, se conserva una Corona dolorosa a María Santísima de los Dolores, sita en la iglesia de San Agustín de El Puerto, y datada en 1832, sacada a la luz por su VOT. Más adelante en 1867 se seguía rezando esa Corona Dolorosa en dicha iglesia a una imagen de María Santísima de los Dolores aunque sin aclarar si pertenecía aun a la mencionada VOT. La actual cofradía, tras varias reorganizaciones, persiste en la actualidad en la iglesia Prioral procesionando en la madrugada del Viernes Santo.

La imagen de la Virgen de los Dolores es la tercera que posee la hermandad tras dos anteriores, la primera atribuida a Pedro Roldán y la segunda obra del imaginero portuense Ovando Merino. La actual imagen procede al parecer del convento de Capuchinas el cual se construye, incluyendo sus altares, en el segundo cuarto del siglo XVIII. Esa debe ser la datación probable de la imagen la cual no se corresponde con la estética andaluza. La imagen del Nazareno fue donada en 1702 por el escribano y hermano mayor de la cofradía José Angel Natera y se vincula a los talleres locales de finales del XVII o principios del XVIII y en particular al escultor roldanesco Ignacio López. La cofradía posee también una imagen de San Juan Evangelista de gran calidad obra documentada de Pedro Roldán en 1662.

PUERTO REAL

Como hemos dicho anteriormente, la siguiente VOT Servita fundada en la Bahía de Cádiz es la de Puerto Real, establecida en el Sagrario de la iglesia prioral de San Sebastián donde tenía capilla propia. En un principio toma los estatutos de la corporación gaditana aunque en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX redacta estatutos propios ya fusionada a las cofradías de las Benditas Ánimas y Santísimo Sacramento. La primitiva imagen, probablemente costeada por la Marquesa de Casa Recaño, pereció en los tristes sucesos de verano de 1936. Por fotos antiguas se trataba de nuevo de una imagen de origen genovés de la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII que tuvo a Francesco Maria Maggio como su representante local más cualificado y a quien ya le hemos atribuido recientemente un crucificado de pequeño formato en la sacristía de dicha Prioral.

Tras la extinción de la VOT Servita a finales de los años 90 surge un movimiento cofrade en torno a la Virgen de los Dolores que recibe su aprobación canónica, ya bajo la forma de cofradía de penitencia, en 1998; procesionando la noche del Lunes Santo. La dolorosa actual es obra moderna atribuida al escultor carmonense Antonio Eslava Rubio, atribución que no compartimos por no presentar la imagen los rasgos comunes de este escultor. Posteriormente la hermandad ha optado por representar la escena del traslado al sepulcro habiendo bendecido recientemente las imágenes del Santísimo Cristo de la Misericordia, María Magdalena y los Santos Varones, obras todas del escultor gaditano Luis González Rey y realizadas entre 2005 y 2006, quedando pendientes para un futuro las imágenes de San Juan y las Santas Mujeres.

SAN FERNANDO

La VOT de San Fernando se funda también en 1759, instalándose al año siguiente en la iglesia parroquial. Al igual que le sucedió a la VOT de Puerto Real y, como veremos más adelante, a la de Chiclana, se rige por las reglas de la orden Servita gaditana hasta que en 1815 redacta sus propias reglas. Con sus lógicos altibajos y tras un pequeño período comprendido entre 1972 y 1977 en que se reorganiza bajo la forma de la hermandad de Mater Amabilis, perdura en la actualidad aun bajo la forma de VOT, siendo junto a la de Cádiz y la de Carmona (Sevilla) las únicas que perduran en su estado original.

La dolorosa de esta VOT parece también imagen genovesa de mediados del XVIII aunque muy reformada posteriormente. Procesiona también la imagen de un crucificado advocado de la Buena Muerte, obra del imaginero local Alfonso Barraquero, y las imágenes de San Juan y Santa María Magdalena.

CHICLANA

Aunque al parecer el culto a la virgen de los Dolores se origina sobre 1748, no es hasta 1759 en que se funda la VOT Servita en la parroquia de San Juan Bautista de Chiclana. Inspirada en la VOT gaditana tiene un discurrir histórico similar en sus comienzos al resto de VOT de la bahía, perdurando en su formato primitivo hasta bien avanzado el siglo XX. En 1956 y ya como cofradía incorpora la imagen de Nuestro Padre Jesús Cautivo y Rescatado, vulgo Medinaceli. Tras unos años postrada en 1970 vuelve a procesionar como cofradía de penitencia la noche del Miércoles Santo.

De nuevo nos encontramos ante una imagen genovesa de mediados del XVIII, junto a la de Cádiz la de mayor valor artístico de esta advocación. Nos parece una obra cercana a alguno de los mejores escultores genoveses que laboraban en Cádiz en aquella época, caso de Antonio Molinari o Francesco Maria Maggio. Esta cofradía posee un rico conjunto de bordados y alhajas del siglo XVIII.


BIBLIOGRAFÍA

ALONSO DE LA SIERRA FERNÁNDEZ, Juan y Lorenzo: Estelas de Piedad: patrimonio artístico religioso en Chiclana de la Frontera, Chiclana de la Frontera, 2003.

ESPINOSA DE LOS MONTEROS SÁNCHEZ, Francisco: Servitas Puerto Real, en http://www.servitascadiz.com/, 2005.

ESPINOSA DE LOS MONTEROS SÁNCHEZ, Francisco: “Las advocaciones de Dolores y Soledad, consideraciones iconográficas”, en Boletín de la Hermandad del Santísimo Cristo Redentor y Nuestra Señora de la Soledad de Badalona, Barcelona, 2005.

FOGELMAN, Patricia A.: “Una cofradía mariana urbana y otra rural en Buenos Aires a fines del período colonial”, en Andes, nº 11, 2000.

GONZÁLEZ LUQUE, Francisco: Imaginería en las Hermandades de Penitencia de El Puerto de Santa María, El Puerto, 2004.

MORENO ARANA, José Manuel: “El escultor Ignacio López. Posible solución a una incógnita”, en Diario de Jerez, 11 de Abril de 2006.

MOSSIG PÉREZ, Fernando: Historia de las Hermandades y Cofradías Isleñas, San Fernando, 2005.

PATRÓN SANDOVAL, Juan Antonio: “Los Rosarios Públicos en Tarifa (y II)”, en Aljaranda, nº 59, 2005.

PATRÓN SANDOVAL, Juan Antonio y ESPINOSA DE LOS MONTEROS SÁNCHEZ, Francisco: El Rosario de las Angustias y la V.O.T. de Nuestra Señora de los Dolores (Servitas) de Tarifa, en http://www.servitascadiz.com/, 2005.

SÁNCHEZ PEÑA, José Miguel: Escultura genovesa: artífices del setecientos en Cádiz, Cádiz, 2006.

SANGUINETTI, Daniele: Anton Maria Maragliano, Génova, 1999.

VV.AA.: Guía Artística de Cádiz y su provincia, 2 Tomos, Sevilla, 2005.

VV.AA.: Seglares Servitas en Cádiz, Cádiz, 2002.

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